Social indicators

Population growth rate (average annual %) 2.5(2017)
Urban population growth rate (average annual %) 4 (2010-2015)
Rural population growth rate (average annual %) 1.9( 2010-2015)
Urban population (%) 26.3 (2014)
Population aged 0-14 years (%) 45.8 (2014)
Population aged 60+ years (females and males, % of total) 4.3/3.6 (2014)
Education: Primary-secondary gross enrolment ratio (f/m per 100) 64.9/99.4 (2007-2013)
Sex ratio (males per 100 females) 102.8 (2014)
Life expectancy at birth (females and males, years) 62.0/59.5 (2010- 2015)
Infant mortality rate (per 1 000 live births) 67.3(2010- 2015)
Fertility rate, total (live births per woman) 5.0 (2010- 2015)

Economic Indicators

GDP per capita 707.6 USD ‎(2013)
GDP growth rate at constant 2005 prices (annual %) 6.4 ‎(2013)
GDP: Gross domestic product (million current US$) 21618 (2013)
GNI: Gross national income per capita (current US$) 707.6 (2013)
Agricultural production index (2004-2006=100) 120 (2013)
Food production index (2004-2006=100) 120 (2013)

National Focal Points for Environment: The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA) Established in 2005 to serve as Afghanistan's environmental policy-making and regulatory institution to regulate, coordinate, monitor and enforce environmental laws-

Afghanistan is a member of SACEP since 1985 and Mr. M.J. Kazem served as the Second Director from 1985 - 1988.

  • Capitals: Kabul
  • Dialing code: +93
  • Currency: Afghan afghani
  • President:Mohammad Ashraf Ghani
  • Population: 30.55 million (2013) World Bank
  • Languages: Pashto and Dari
  • Area: 652,864 sq km
  • National Focal Points for Environment: The National Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)

Country’s Environmental Profile

Afghanistan is a semi arid and landlocked mountainous country buffered by the Hindu Kush mountain ranges. The country is the 41st largest in the world in size and lies at the intersection of three of the world’s biogeographic realms: the Palearctic, Indomalayan, and Afrotropic bioregions.

Natural resources and associated biological diversity provides the livelihood basis for up to 80% of the Afghan population. Biodiversity resources in Afghanistan comprise an estimated 3,500-4,000 native species of vascular plants, 428-515 bird species, 137-150 mammal species, 101-139 fish species, 92-112 reptile species, and 6-8 amphibian species (UNEP 2009).

Rangelands of Afghanistan occupy about 30 million hectares, representing roughly 45 per cent of the country’s territory. However large areas which are considered ‘barren land’ or ‘waste land’ are also used for grazing, particularly in winter. The total grazeable area is therefore much larger, estimated at 70–85 per cent of the total land area, providing habitat and forage for nearly 35 million livestock as well as numerous wild animals.

Afghanistan is an agrarian country, with up to 80 percent of the population involved in farming or herding, or both, however agricultural production is limited by very high dependence on water from melting snow and ice and rainfall.

Almost all of the country’s known oil and natural gas reserves are in the northern part of the country, located in parts of two geologic basins – gas in the Amu Darya Basin to the west, and oil in the Afghan-Tajik Basin to the east. Afghanistan has reasonably good quality coal reserves (estimated at 400 million tonnes), most of which are located in the northern part of the country in the region between Herat and Badakshan.

Country’s Environmental Profile

Designation Type/ Name of Protected Areas Status Year of designation Area (km2) IUCN category
National Park
Ajar Valley Proposed 2003 296.01 Not Reported
Nuristan Proposed 0.00 Not Reported
Provisional National Park
Band-e-Amir Designated 2009 613.30 II
Waterfowl Sanctuary
Ab-i-Estada Designated 1977 270.00 IV
Dashte-Nawar Designated 1977 75.00 II
Hamun-i-Puzak Proposed 1973 350.00 IV
Kole Hashmat Khan Proposed 1973 1.91 IV
Wildlife Managed Reserve
Darqad (Takhar) Proposed 0.00 Not Reported
Dashte-Nawar Proposed 0.00 Not Reported
Northwest Afghanistan Proposed 0.00 Not Reported
Registan Desert Proposed 0.00 Not Reported
Wildlife Reserve
Ajar Valley Designated 1977 400.00 IV
Big Pamir Designated 1978 577.00 IV

Major International Environmental Agreements :

Conventions/Treaties Ratified year
United Nations Convention on Law of the Sea signed 1983 but no ratified
Kyoto Protocol 2013
Framework on Convention on Climate Change 2002
Convention of Biological Diversity 2002
Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer 2004
Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer 2004
Convention to Combat Desertification 1995
Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Date of enforcement: 1/28/1996
Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Waste and Their Disposals 2013
Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty 2003
Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968) 1992

Principal Environmental Laws

Pre-2001 legislation

Post-2001 legislation

Environmental Law- 2007

Environmental Related Reports

  • The National Capacity Needs Self-Assessment for Global Environmental Management (NCSA) and National Adaptation Programme of Action for Climate Change (NAPA)- 2008
  • Afghanistan’s Environment in Transition – Ali Azimi and David McCauley, ADB 2002
  • Biodiversity Profile of Afghanistan -,UNEP, Post-Conflict and Disaster Management Branch 2008
  • A Guide to Afghanistan’s 2007,Environment Law – UNEP/NEPA
  • Assessment of Biomass Resources in Afghanistan – Anelia Milbrandt and Ralph Overend
  • National Biodiversity Strategy & Action Plan (Framework for Implementation 2014 – 2017) – UNEP,GEF
  • Fifth National Report to the United Nation’s Convention on Biological Diversity – NEAPA 2014